Click on the title to show the abstract for each presentation. Nominees for the Best Paper and the Best Student Presentation awards as well as the Best Poster Paper award are indicated with an asterisk (*) after their presentation titles.
O1 – Devices
Session chairs: Can Dede, Manuel Cruz
O1.1 A Teleoperated Parallel Robot for Transanal Single-Port Surgery: Ergonomics and Workspace Aspects *
Christian Hatzfeld1, Carsten Neupert1, Sebastian Matich1, Manuel Braun2, Johannes Bilz1, Jonas Johannink2, Peter P. Pott1, Mario Kupnik1, Roland Werthschützky1, Andreas Kirschniak2
1Technische Universität Darmstadt, 2Universitätsklinikum Tübingen
Abstract: We present a new teleoperation setup for minimally invasive single-port surgery through natural orifices. The system consists of an intra-corporal parallel slave robot with two instrument arms and a corresponding master interface with four degrees of freedom and grasping. The master interface mimicks the slave robot kinematics to prevent non-achievable movements. In this work, we address several ergonomic aspects of the setup, including surgeon’s pose, movement scaling, visual feedback, and haptic feedback. Two experiments were performed to investigate the accuracy and dexterity of the robotic system compared to conventional single-port systems.
O1.2 The Rice Haptic Rocker: skin stretch haptic feedback with the Pisa/IIT SoftHand *
Edoardo Battaglia1, Janelle Clark2, Matteo Bianchi1, Manuel Catalano3, Antonio Bicchi1, Marcia O'Malley2
1University of Pisa, 2Rice University, 3Instituto Italiano di Tecnologia (Genova)
Abstract: Myoelectric prostheses have seen increased application in clinical practice and research, due to their potential for good functionality and versatility. Yet, myoelectric prostheses still suffer from a lack of intuitive control and haptic feedback, which can lead to abandonment. To address this we propose to convey proprioceptive information for a prosthetic hand with skin stretch using the Rice Haptic Rocker. This device was integrated with the myo-controlled version of Pisa/IIT SoftHand and a size discrimination test with 18 able bodied subjects was performed. Results show that the Rice Haptic Rocker can be successfully used to convey proprioceptive information.
O1.3 Haptic fMRI : A Novel Five DOF Haptic Interface for Multi-Axis Motor Neuroscience Experiments
Samir Menon1, Amaury Soviche2, Jananan Mithrakumar1, Alok Subbarao1, Hari Ganti1, Oussama Khatib1
1Stanford University, 2EPFL
Abstract: We present a novel electromagnetically actuated Haptic fMRI Interface with five degrees-of-freedom (DOF), HFI-5. The interface uses two three degree-of-freedom devices connected with a gimbal in a closed kinematic chain to achieve three-axis translation and two-axis rotation. In the paper, we also present a taxonomy of similar devices, a novel cross-correlation method to evaluate the device’s transparency, high-fidelity position, velocity, and acceleration estimation, and human neuroimaging tests to show fMRI-compatibility.
O1.4 Local friction modulation using non-radiating ultrasonic vibrations *
1CEA, LIST, Sensory and Ambient Interfaces Laboratory
Abstract: This paper introduces a technique that locally modulates tactile friction on a surface. Using this technique, the friction modulation effect is co-located with the actuator through the use of specific non-radiating frequencies. Because waves do not propagate in the surface at these specific frequencies, the vibration amplitude is controlled locally with a simple harmonic excitation of the actuators. The existence of such frequencies is explained through a semi-analytical model of piezoelectric actuation. The ability to locally control the vibration field and to modulate the friction independently for each actuator is demonstrated experimentally on a thin glass plate.
O2 – Tactile perception
Session chairs: Marc Ernst, Roberta Klatzky
O2.1 Feeling and feelings: Affective and perceptual dimensions of touched materials and their connection
Knut Drewing1, Claire Weyel1, Hevi Celebi1, Dilan Kaya1
Abstract: Participants explored 47 solid, fluid and granular materials and rated them according to perceptual and affective attributes. In a PCA of perceptual ratings, we extracted six dimensions: Fluidity, Roughness, Deformability, Fibrousness, Heaviness, and Granularity explained 88% variance. A PCA on affective ratings revealed the dimensions: Valence, Arousal, and Dominance, explaining 92% variance. Greater Valence was significantly associated with reduced Roughness, greater Arousal with more Fluidity and greater Dominance with decreasing Deformability and Heaviness. We demonstrate that the range of affective responses to touched material is broader than previously assumed, and that affective responses are systematically associated with perceptual dimensions.
O2.2 The longer the first stimulus is explored in softness discrimination the longer it can be compared to the second one
Anna Metzger1, Knut Drewing1
Abstract: Haptic exploration of an object’s softness usually consists of repeated indentions of the object, each providing softness estimates. We investigated how these sequentially sampled estimates are combined, by manipulating the single estimates and measuring how this affected the overall percept. We had shown that in a comparison task information about the firstly and secondly touched stimuli is integrated differently: estimates of the fist stimulus’ softness contribute equally to the overall percept but later estimates of the second stimulus’ softness contribute less than early ones. Here we show that this decay depends on the exploration length of the first stimulus.
O2.3 Hardness Perception by Tapping: Effect of Dynamic Stiffness of Objects *
Kosuke Higashi1, Shogo Okamoto1,, Yoji Yamada1, Hikaru Nagano2, Masashi Konyo2
1Nagoya University, 2Tohoku University
Abstract: Hardness perception by tapping is based on a different mechanism from that by pinching or surface deflection. In stead, the vibration of object caused by tapping plays a key role. We experimentally investigated the linkage between the hardness percption by tapping and the dynamic stiffness of object that determines the vibratory behaviors of object. We then found that the dynamic stiffness does not equally affect the perception across the wide frequency range. Especially the dynamic stiffness around 200-400 Hz have greater impacts on the perception.
O2.4 A Comprehensive Mechanotransduction Model for Tactile Feedback based on Multi-Axial Stresses at the Fingertip-Contact Interface
Maria Valero1, Nick Hale1, Jing Tang1, Liudi Jiang1
1University of Southampton
Abstract: This paper presents a mechanotransduction model designed to convert the multi-axial mechanical loads at the fingertip-contact interface into neural-spike trains, the Multi-Axial Stress Mechanotransduction (MASM) model. Seeking a comprehensive solution and more direct integration with sensor systems in tactile applications, the model accounts for the conversion of multi-axial (pressure and shear) stresses at the fingertip-contact interface into spike trains with artificial slow adapting (SA) and rapidly adapting (RA) afferents type I (SAI, RAI) and II (SAII, RAII), which have been modelled based on the properties of those in human fingertips.
O3 – Virtual and remote interaction
Session chairs: Ilana Nisky, Yon Visell
O3.1 Proxy-Based Haptic Rendering for Underactuated Haptic Devices *
Daniel Lobo1, Mine Sarac2, Mickeal Verschoor1, Massimiliano Solazzi2, Antonio Frisoli2, Miguel Otaduy11Universidad Rey Juan Carlos, 2Scuola Superiore Sant'Anna
Abstract: Standard haptic rendering algorithms are not well suited for underactuated haptic devices. They compute forces oblivious of underactuation, and then they simply project the resulting forces to the actuated subspace. We propose instead a proxy-based haptic rendering method that computes displacements in the actuated subspace only, and then translates these displacements into force commands using regular controllers. Our method is well behaved in two important ways: it is locally passive w.r.t. the motion of the haptic device, and the displayed impedance can be easily controlled regardless of the mapping between device and virtual configuration spaces.
O3.2 Haptic feedback of membrane puncture with an MR-compatible instrumented needle and electroactive polymer display *
Jung Hwa Bae1, Amy Kyungwon Han1, Christopher Ploch1, Bruce Daniel2, Mark Cutkosky1
1Stanford University, 2Stanford Hospital
Abstract: We present results of experiments with a haptic feedback device that imparts tangential deformations to the fingertips for displaying changes in force experienced by an MR-compatible optically-instrumented biopsy needle. The display is actuated using multiple layers of MR-compatible electroactive polymers stretched in a plastic frame. Users can use the device to sense events such as membrane puncture, as the needle is driven through a tissue phantom, with 98.9%
O3.3 Novel Learning From Demonstration Approach for Repetitive Teleoperation Tasks
Affan Pervez1, Arslan Ali, Jee-Hwan Ryu, Dongheui Lee1
1Technical University of Munich, 2Korea University of Technology and Education
Abstract: While teleoperation provides a possibility for a robot to operate at extreme conditions instead of a human, it demands a heavy mental workload from a human operator. Learning from demonstrations can reduce the human operator’s burden by learning repetitive teleoperation tasks. Demonstrations via teleoperation are less consistent compared to other modalities of human demonstrations. In order to solve this problem, we propose a learning scheme based on Expectation Maximization and Dynamic Movement Primitives which can handle less consistent, asynchronized and incomplete demonstrations. The proposed algorithm is tested and validated with three different experiments of a peg-in-hole task.
O3.4 Sample Selection of Multi-Trial Data for Data-Driven Haptic Texture Modeling
Arsen Abdulali1, Waseem Hassan1, Seokhee Jeon1
Abstract: In data-driven haptic texture rendering, the rendering quality is highly dependent on the quality of the input output model training. The data in input model should be sufficient both in terms of quantity and coverage of the input space. Furthermore, the ever increasing input dimensions, to attain more realistic rendering makes the task of model building even more difficult. Thus, this paper proposes a novel sample selection algorithm that provides an efficient method of combining modeling data across multiple independent trials, whereby the significant model points are selected from each independent trial while the outliers are being eliminated.
O4 – Vibrotactile and thermal display
Session chairs: William Harwin, Shoichi Hasegawa
O4.1 An experimental setup to test dual-joystick directional responses to vibrotactile stimuli
Lorenzo Scalera1, Stefano Seriani2, Paolo Gallina2, Massimiliano Di Luca3, Alessandro Gasparetto1
1University of Udine, 2University of Trieste, 3University of Birmingham
Abstract: We investigate the influence of the location of vibrotactile stimulation in triggering the response made using two handheld joysticks and two gloves, each equipped with four pager motors. We compare performance with stimuli delivered either using tactors placed on the palm or on the back of the hand and with attractive (move toward the vibration) or repulsive prompts (move away from the vibration). Results indicate that participants (fifty-three volunteers) performed better with attractive prompts and that the stimulation delivered on the back of the hand from the gloves gives better responses than the stimulation on the palm delivered by joysticks.
O4.2 Attachable and Detachable Vibrotactile Feedback Modules and Their Information Capacity For Spatiotemporal Patterns *
Gunhyuk Park1, Hojun Cha1, Seungmoon Choi1
1Pohang University of Science and Technology
Abstract: This paper showcases attachable/detachable haptic modules, nicknamed haptic enchanters, by presenting their conceptual prototypes and quantifying their information transmission capacity. Haptic enchanters can be attached to ordinary devices and transform them to effective haptic interfaces. Our prototypes are designed to localize vibrations to the neighborhood of attachment site, and this isolation allows for effective spatiotemporal information delivery using multiple enchanters. We demonstrate that haptic enchanters enable very high capacity of information transfer (4.557.06 bits) for spatiotemporal sequences using 24 enchanters. These results instantiate the performance of haptic enchanters as effective and convenient accessories and their potential for applications.
O4.3 Predictable and Distinguishable Morphing of Vibrotactile Rhythm
Benjamin Clark1, Oliver Schneider1,2, Karon MacLean1, Hong Tan3
1University of British Columbia, 2Hasso Plattner Institute, 3Purdue University
Abstract: Vibrotactile (VT) icons are an expressive and expected element of many user interfaces. However, it is still difficult to design, customize, and experiment with VT feedback. Here we consider the perceptual morphing of rhythm to expand editorial scope for designers, end-users, and hapticians. We propose two assessment criteria: predictability — a morph has similarities to one or both parents
O4.4 Perceptual Interactions in Thermo-tactile Displays *
Anshul Singhal1, Lynette Jones1
Abstract: Thermo-tactile displays have been developed to enhance the degree of realism in virtual environments and assist in the identification of virtual objects. The present experiment measured thermal pattern identification in the presence of concurrent vibrotactile feedback on the thenar eminence on the hand. The thermal patterns varied with respect to the direction, rate, and duration of change in skin temperature and for the vibration inputs the number of pulses was varied. The results indicated that with concurrent tactile stimulation warm stimuli were easier to identify than cool stimuli and that the number of vibration pulses affected thermal identification.
O5 – Sensory Substitution
Session chairs: Fernando Bello, Evren Samur
O5.1 Tactile Slip and Hand Displacement: Bending Hand Motion with Tactile Illusions *
Matteo Bianchi1, Alessandro Moscatelli2, Simone Ciotti3, Gemma Carolina Bettelani1, Federica Fioretti1, Francesco Lacquaniti2, Antonio Bicchi3
1University of Pisa, 2University of Rome 'Tor Vergata', 3Isituto Italiano di Tecnologia
Abstract: In this study, we tested the hypothesis that, sliding our hand over a stationary surface, tactile motion may provide a feedback for guiding hand trajectory. We asked participants to touch a plate with parallel ridges at different orientations and to perform a straight movement of the hand. In our daily-life experience, tactile slip motion is equal and opposite to hand motion. We used a well-established perceptual illusion to dissociate, in a controlled manner, the two motion estimates. We showed a systematic deviation in the movement of the hand towards a direction opposite to the one predicted by tactile flow model.
O5.2 Compensation of Perceived Hardness of a Virtual Object with Cutaneous Feedback
Jaeyoung Park1, Jaeha Kim1, Yonghwan Oh1, Hong Z. Tan2
1Korea Institute of Science and Technology, 2Purdue University
Abstract: In this study, we propose a method to compensate the perceived hardness of a compliant virtual object with cutaneous feedback. A cutaneous haptic interface is designed to present the hardness to a users fingertip and the corresponding rendering strategy is proposed. Two experiments were conducted to evaluate the proposed approach for stiffness values under 0.3 N/mm. The addition of cutaneous feedback led the virtual surface to feel significantly harder than the nominal stiffness felt by force-feedback alone. Also, the perceived hardness was significantly affected by the rate of hardness rendered with cutaneous interface at high nominal stiffness.
O5.3 A Wrist-Squeezing Force-Feedback System for Robotic Surgery Training
Jeremy Brown1, Joshua Fernandez2, Sean Cohen3, Katherine Kuchenbecker3,4
1Johns Hopkins University, 2University of Maryland, 3University of Pennsylvania, 4Max Planck Institute for Intelligent Systems
Abstract: Incorporating touch cues into robotic surgery training could potentially shorten the learning process if the benefits of haptic feedback were sustained after it is removed. In this paper, we develop a wrist-squeezing haptic feedback system and evaluate whether it holds the potential to train novice da Vinci users to reduce the force they exert with the da Vinci tools. Real-time tactile feedback of the applied force magnitude was conditionally gated while participants performed the task. Results show a significant reduction in the force exerted with the da Vinci tools, even when the haptic feedback was removed.
O5.4 Effects of Full/Partial Haptic Guidance on Handwriting Skills Development
Akiko Teranishi1, Timothy Mulumba1, Georgios Karafotias1, Jihad Mohamad Aljaam2, Mohamad Eid1
1New York University Abu Dhabi, 2Qatar University
Abstract: We present a comparison between full and partial guidance using a haptic learning tool to improve the learning outcomes of handwriting motor skills. The full guidance mode leads the user along a pre-recorded trajectory, whereas the partial guidance mode allows the user a free movement and provides corrective forces if they deviate significantly from the desired path. Experimental results demonstrated that there is no significant difference between partial and full haptic guidance for improving learning outcomes, while both have significantly improved the learner’s performance. However, when the two modes are combined, partial guidance followed by full guidance yielded better performance.
O6 – Surface and mid-air interaction
Session chairs: Hiroyuki Kajimoto, Sile O’Modhrain
O6.1 The Application of Tactile, Audible, and Ultrasonic Forces to Human Fingertips Using Broadband Electroadhesion
Craig Shultz1, Michael Peshkin1, J.Edward Colgate1
Abstract: We report an approach to controlling friction forces on sliding human fingertips in order to produce simultaneous vibrations across an exceedingly broad range of tactile, audible, and ultrasonic frequencies which can be both felt and heard. We introduce and an experimental apparatus capable of recording friction forces up to a frequency of 6 kHz, and describe an electroadhesive system with a flat current to force magnitude response throughout this range. Recordings with a MEMS microphone confirm the existence of ultrasonic forces applied to the finger. Implications for the design of surface haptic and general audio-haptic displays are discussed.
O6.2 Feeling multiple edges: the tactile perception of short ultrasonic square reductions of the finger-surface friction
David Gueorguiev1, Eric Vezzoli2, Thomas Sednaoui2, Laurent Grisoni1, Betty Lemaire-Semail2
1INRIA, 2University of Lille
Abstract: This study investigates human perception of tactile feedback provided using short frictional cues of varying duration and sharpness induced by ultrasonic lubrication. Participants proved very sensitive to discriminate millisecond differences in these parameters with thresholds being 2.4 ms for discriminating duration and 2.06 ms for transition time. In another experiment, participants perceived 3 or 4 edges when only two pulses were presented confirming the sensitivity of touch to short frictional cues and raising the question of how such cues are perceived. Knowledge of the perception of potentially ambiguous frictional cues could also prove important to define unambiguous core frictional blocks.
O6.3 Optimal Skin Impedance Promotes Ultrasonic Switches Perception
Jocelyn Monnoyer1,2, Emmanuelle Diaz1, Christophe Bourdin2, Michael Wiertlewski2
1PSA Groupe, 2Aix Marseille University
Abstract: Ultrasonic friction reduction, can be used to create an artificial sensation of pressing a mechanical switch by varying the coefficient of friction, which depends on the force applied by the user. We explored in this paper, the influence of mechanical and tribological parameters on the detection of ultrasonic switch. About one quarter of the participants we tested did not perceive well the stimulation. The results show that the impedance of the user has a significant influence, strengthening the hypothesis that mechanical parameters are influential in the squeeze film levitation process.
O6.4 Mid-air Tactile Display Using Indirect Laser Radiation for Contour-Following Stimulation and Assessment of Its Spatial Acuity
Hojun Cha1, Hojin Lee1, Junsuk Park1, Hyung-Sik Kim2, Soon-Cheol Chung2, Seungmoon Choi1
1Pohang University of Science and Technology, 2Konkuk University
Abstract: This paper presents a mid-air tactile display based on indirect laser radiation designed to provide continuous moving tactile sensations along a contour on the skin. The display uses a small laser device mounted on a motorized gimbal for the control of laser radiation direction. A laser is irradiated on a black rubber-coated PVC tape attached to the userâ€™s body. We report a psychophysical experiment carried out to study the spatial acuity of laser-induced tactile stimuli by measuring point localization thresholds. Results indicate that LaserStroke has adequate performance for transmitting continuously moving tactile sensations through the air.